Community resiliency is a term commonly used to describe the ability of a community to endure and survive crisis situations. It encompasses the community's adaptability to changing circumstances and its capability to respond effectively.
The community resiliency assessment project was launched in 2010 by Dr. Limor Aharonson-Daniel from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and Prof. Mooli Lahad from Tel-Hai Academic College who formed the Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Collaboration: a multidisciplinary cooperative network of experts from seven Israeli academic institutions, linked to decision-makers and partners from relevant ministries and emergency services.
The goal of this effort was to develop a tool that can provide Local and government authorities with a scientifically valid assessment of their community's resilience in order to support the direction of resources towards the elements that the evaluation has pinpointed as needing a boost. Furthermore, the CCRAM facilitates the appraisal of the efficacy of the action taken. Until now the following aims have been achieved:
A tool for assessing community resiliency has been developed, validated and named Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM).
The CCRAM has demonstrated its' potential role in establishing a baseline score of community resiliency and its' constructs.
Components of community resiliency based on the CCRAM model
Leadership - Six items representing general faith in decision makers, specific faith in local leaders' perception of fairness in the way local authority provide services, and functioning of the community.
CollectiveEfficacy - Five items representing collective efficacy, support, involvement in the community and mutual aid.
Preparedness - Four items representing family and community acquaintance with emergency situations, and a view of the town's preparedness for emergency situations.
Attachment to Place - Four items representing emotional attachment to the community, sense of belonging, pride in community and ideological identification with the community.
Social Trust - Two items representing trust and the quality of relationships between members of the community.
Knowledge gained from the pilot study
The fundamental assumption that decision-makers in Israel and other countries make is that 'weaknesses' (as opposed to resiliency) are linked – among other variables – to income level and employment status. Many programs and much funding and efforts have been founded on this assumption. However, when it comes to community resiliency and coping with disasters, research reveals a rather different picture: More than gender or occupation, the factors that affect resiliency are the duration of residence in the community, number of previous exposures to emergency events, and membership in a local community emergency team.
As depicted in the diagram below, our tool can be used to compare the resiliency over time, and determine which resiliency components have grown weaker or stronger. Data was collected three times in the same small urban settlement in November 2011, during a routine period, during November 2012 under frequent missile attacks, and one year after, in November 2013, again during a routine period. As can be seen, during Operation Pillar of Defense, four of five components of community resiliency scored significantly higher, most significant was the rise in sense of preparedness. Sense of preparedness continuted to rise one year after the military operation was terminated, while the other factors returened to their pre-crisis levels.
Communities have an inherent capacity to function effectively and adapt successfully to a new post-disaster reality.
Periodic assessment of community resiliency – including during periods of calm – can enhance preparedness and help stream resources to weak aspects that undermine resiliency.
We have laid the foundations for a continuously updated data bank of community resiliency assessments for the use of local and national government authorities. We now aspire to meet the challenge of establishing an international community resiliency measurement center in a foreseeable future and ask you to join us in research.
We are happy to assist the implementation and application of the CCRAM tool in any community interested, including involvement in study design and support in analyzing the study results.
We welcome discussions on theoretical and practical aspects of proposed projects for the measurement of Community Resiliency using CCRAM.
Plans for the future
To instigate community resiliency surveys, followed by periodic measurements that will contribute to local and national databases and assist in evaluating the efficacy of intervention and maintenance programs – before, during and after emergencies, worldwide.
To explore the relationship between the CCRAM and other validated measures and scores.
The CCRAM is currently being used for measuring community resiliency in various places.
The CCRAM is available in Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, English, German and Italian and will soon be translated to Spanish Greek and Turkish.
The CCRAM was developed through the collaboration of a group of researchers from seven academic institutions and several governmental authorities in Israel.
Full publication list of articles citing the CCRAM tool and model
Aharonson-Daniel L, Lahad M, Leykin D, Cohen O, Goldberg A. Community Resilience Assessment - Meeting the Challenge - the Development of the Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment. Resiliency: Enhancing Coping with Crisis and Terrorism. 2015. pp. 179–205.
Alshehri, S. A., Rezgui, Y., & Li, H. (2015). Disaster community resilience assessment method: a consensus-based Delphi and AHP approach. Natural Hazards, 78(1), 395-416.
Bonanno, G. A., Romero, S. A., & Klein, S. I. (2015). The temporal elements of psychological resilience: An integrative framework for the study of individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Inquiry, 26(2), 139-169.
Braun-Lewensohn, O., & Mosseri Rubin, M. (2014). Personal and communal resilience in communities exposed to missile attacks: Does intensity of exposure matter?. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(2), 175-182.
Braun-Lewensohn, O., & Sagy, S. (2014). Community resilience and sense of coherence as protective factors in explaining stress reactions: comparing cities and rural communities during missiles attacks. Community mental health journal, 50(2), 229-234.
Cline, R. J., Orom, H., Chung, J. E., & Hernandez, T. (2014). The Role of Social Toxicity in Responses to a Slowly‐Evolving Environmental Disaster: The Case of Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Libby, Montana, USA. American journal of community psychology, 54(1-2), 12-27.
Cohen, O., Bolotin, A., Lahad, M., Goldberg, A., & Aharonson-Daniel, L. (2016). Increasing sensitivity of results by using quantile regression analysis for exploring community resilience. Ecological Indicators, 66, 497-502.
Cohen, O., Geva, D., Lahad, M., Bolotin, A., Leykin, D., Goldberg, A., & Aharonson-Daniel, L. (2016). Community Resilience throughout the Lifespan–The Potential Contribution of Healthy Elders. PLoS one, 11(2), e0148125.
Cohen, O., Leykin, D., Lahad, M., Goldberg, A., & Aharonson-Daniel, L. (2013). The conjoint community resiliency assessment measure as a baseline for profiling and predicting community resilience for emergencies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(9), 1732-1741.
Cutter, S. L. (2016). The landscape of disaster resilience indicators in the USA.Natural Hazards, 80(2), 741-758.
Distelberg, B. J., Martin, A. V. S., Borieux, M., & Oloo, W. A. (2015). Multidimensional Family Resilience Assessment: The Individual, Family, and Community Resilience (IFCR) Profile. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(6), 552-570.
Docena, P. S. (2015). Adaptive Coping, Resilience, and Absence of Anxiety Among Displaced Disaster Survivors. PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 48(2), 27-49.
Doğulu, C., Karanci, A. N., & Ikizer, G. (2016). How do survivors perceive community resilience? The case of the 2011 earthquakes in Van, Turkey.International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 16, 108-114.
Doğulu, C., Karanci, A. N., & Ikizer, G. (2016). International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.
Eshel, Y., & Kimhi, S. (2016). Community resilience of civilians at war: a new perspective. Community mental health journal, 52(1), 109-117.
Eshel, Y., & Kimhi, S. (2016). Determinants of individual resilience following missile attacks: A new perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 190-195.
Eshel, Y., Kimhi, S., Lahad, M., & Leykin, D. (2016). Individual, Community, and National Resiliencies and Age: Are Older People Less Resilient than Younger Individuals?. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
Henry, D., Gorman-Smith, D., Schoeny, M., & Tolan, P. (2014). “Neighborhood matters”: Assessment of neighborhood social processes. American journal of community psychology, 54(3-4), 187-204.
Houston, J. B. (2015). Bouncing Forward Assessing Advances in Community Resilience Assessment, Intervention, and Theory to Guide Future Work.American Behavioral Scientist, 59(2), 175-180.
Jianbo, Z., & Qun, Y. (2014). Design of Public Regional Emergency Communication System based on RS485. Electrotehnica, Electronica, Automatica, 62(3), 126.
Kimhi, S. (2016). Levels of resilience: Associations among individual, community, and national resilience. Journal of health psychology, 21(2), 164-170.
Kimhi, S., & Eshel, Y. (2015). The Missing Link in Resilience Research.Psychological Inquiry, 26(2), 181-186.
Komac, B., & ci ja Lapuh, L. (2014). NEKAJ MISLI O KONCEPTU PROŽNOSTI V GEOGRAFIJI NARAVNIH NESREČ. Geografski vestnik 86-1
Kovalenko, S., Siryk, A., & Vlasiuk, I. (2014). Planning of elimination of emergency consequences. Ukrainian food journal, (3, Issue 2), 288-294.
Kulig, J., & Botey, A. P. Facing a wildfire: What did we learn about individual and community resilience?. Natural Hazards, 1-11.
Labaka, L., Hernantes, J., & Sarriegi, J. M. (2016). A holistic framework for building critical infrastructure resilience. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 103, 21-33.
Leykin, D., Lahad, M., Cohen, O., Goldberg, A., & Aharonson-Daniel, L. (2013). Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure‐28/10 Items (CCRAM28 and CCRAM10): A Self‐report Tool for Assessing Community Resilience.American journal of community psychology, 52(3-4), 313-323.
Leykin, D., Lahad, M., Cohen, R., Goldberg, A., & Aharonson-Daniel, L. (2016). The dynamics of Community Resilience between routine and emergency situations. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.
Lyons, A., Fletcher, G., & Bariola, E. (2016). Assessing the Well-Being Benefits of Belonging to Resilient Groups and Communities: Development and Testing of the Fletcher-Lyons Collective Resilience Scale (FLCRS).
Ostadtaghizadeh, A. Ostadtaghizadeh A, Ardalan A, Paton D, Jabbari H, Khankeh HR. Community Disaster Resilience: a Systematic Review on Assessment Models and Tools. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2015 Apr 8. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents. dis. f224ef8efbdfcf1d508dd0de4d8210ed.
Ostadtaghizadeh, A., Ardalan, A., Paton, D., Jabbari, H., & Khankeh, H. R. (2015). Community disaster resilience: a systematic review on assessment models and tools. PLoS currents, 7.
Pérez, J. I. R. (2015). Resiliencia comunitaria: propuesta de una escala y su relación con indicadores de violencia criminal. Pensamiento Psicológico, 13(1), 119-135.
Ruiz Pérez, J. I. (2015). Community Resilience: Proposal of a Scale and its Relationship with Criminal Violence Indicators. Pensamiento Psicológico, 13(1), 119-135.
Sharma, S., & Sharma, S. K. (2015). Psychometric Evaluation of BRT-13B: A Shorter Version of the Benchmark Resilience Tool. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 8(3), 33-47.
Sharma, S., & Sharma, S. K. (2016). Team Resilience: Scale Development and Validation. Vision, 20(1), 37.
Singh-Peterson, L., Salmon, P., Baldwin, C., & Goode, N. (2015). Deconstructing the concept of shared responsibility for disaster resilience: a Sunshine Coast case study, Australia. Natural Hazards, 79(2), 755-774.
Singh-Peterson, L., Salmon, P., Goode, N., & Gallina, J. (2014). Translation and evaluation of the baseline resilience indicators for communities on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 10, 116-126.
Storr, V. H., Haeffele-Balch, S., & Grube, L. E. (2015). Community Revival in the Wake of Disaster: Lessons in Local Entrepreneurship. Palgrave Macmillan.
Turoff, M., Hiltz, S. R., Bañuls, V. A., & Van Den Eede, G. (2013). Multiple perspectives on planning for emergencies: An introduction to the special issue on planning and foresight for emergency preparedness and management.Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(9), 1647-1656.
Коваленко, С. Д., Коваленко, С. Д., Сірик, А. О., Сирик, А. О., Siryk, A., Власюк, І., ... & Kovalenko, S. D. (2014). Planning of elimination of emergency consequences.